Being able to write was a rare achievement for over years in Western Europe so monks who copied texts were scribes responsible for saving many texts from classical times. The monasteries, where monks who knew how to read and write lived, provided an environment stable enough for writing. Irish monks, for example, came to Europe in about and "found manuscripts in places like Tours and Toulouse " which they copied. A technical writer prepares instructions or manuals, such as user guides or owner's manuals for users of equipment to follow. Technical writers also write various procedures for business, professional or domestic use.
Since the purpose of technical writing is practical rather than creative, its most important quality is clarity. The technical writer, unlike the creative writer, is required to adhere to the relevant style guide. There is a range of approaches that writers take to the task of writing. Each writer needs to find their own process and most describe it as more or less a struggle.
Before the invention of photocopiers and electronic text storage, a writer's work had to be stored on paper, which meant it was very susceptible to fire in particular. In very early times, writers used vellum and clay which were more robust materials. Writers whose work was destroyed before completion include L. Zamenhof , the inventor of Esperanto , whose years of work were thrown into the fire by his father because he was afraid that "his son would be thought a spy working code". He wrote it again from the beginning. Angus Wilson , for example, wrote for a number of hours every morning.
Writer's block is a relatively common experience among writers, especially professional writers, when for a period of time the writer feels unable to write for reasons other than lack of skill or commitment. Happy are they who don't doubt themselves and whose pens fly across the page Gustave Flaubert writing to Louise Colet .
Maybe I am not the most apt person to give an opinion on this, but I will throw in my 2 cents anyway. Hoping to safeguard my sensitivities with layers of words and the expression of thought. Meanwhile breaking inside. Genre Romance. Thanks for providing such an excellent resource.
Most writers write alone — typically they are engaged in a solitary activity that requires them to struggle with both the concepts they are trying to express and the best way to express it. This may mean choosing the best genre or genres as well as choosing the best words. Writers often develop idiosyncratic solutions to the problem of finding the right words to put on a blank page or screen. Goethe couldn't write a line if there was another person anywhere in the same house, or so he said at some point.
Collaborative writing means that multiple authors write and contribute to a piece of writing. In this approach, it is highly likely the writers will collaborate on editing the piece too. The more usual process is that the editing is done by an independent editor after the writer submits a draft version. In some cases, such as that between a librettist and composer, a writer will collaborate with another artist on a creative work.
One of the best known of these types of collaborations is that between Gilbert and Sullivan. Librettist W. Gilbert wrote the words for the comic operas created by the partnership. Occasionally, a writing task is given to a committee of writers. The most famous example is the task of translating the Bible into English, sponsored by King James VI of England in and accomplished by six committees, some in Cambridge and some in Oxford , who were allocated different sections of the text.
The resulting Authorized King James Version , published in , has been described as an "everlasting miracle" because its writers that is, its Translators sought to "hold themselves consciously poised between the claims of accessibility and beauty, plainness and richness, simplicity and majesty, the people and the king", with the result that the language communicates itself "in a way which is quite unaffected, neither literary nor academic, not historical, nor reconstructionist, but transmitting a nearly incredible immediacy from one end of human civilisation to another.
Some writers support the verbal part of their work with images or graphics that are an integral part of the way their ideas are communicated. William Blake is one of rare poets who created his own paintings and drawings as integral parts of works such as his Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Cartoonists are writers whose work depends heavily on hand drawn imagery. Other writers, especially writers for children, incorporate painting or drawing in more or less sophisticated ways. Shaun Tan , for example, is a writer who uses imagery extensively, sometimes combining fact, fiction and illustration, sometimes for a didactic purpose, sometimes on commission.
Some writers contribute very small sections to a piece of writing that cumulates as a result. This method is particularly suited to very large works, such as dictionaries and encyclopaedias. The best known example of the former is the Oxford English Dictionary , under the editorship of lexicographer James Murray , who was provided with the prolific and helpful contributions of W.
Minor , at the time an inmate of a hospital for the criminally insane. The best known example of the latter — an encyclopaedia that is crowdsourced — is Wikipedia, which relies on millions of writers and editors such as Simon Pulsifer  worldwide. Writers have many different reasons for writing, among which is usually some combination of self-expression  and recording facts, history or research results. The many physician writers , for example, have combined their observation and knowledge of the human condition with their desire to write and contributed many poems, plays, translations, essays and other texts.
Some writers write extensively on their motivation and on the likely motivations of other writers. As to "what constitutes success or failure to a writer", it has been described as "a complicated business, where the material rubs up against the spiritual, and psychology plays a big part".
The moral I draw is that the writer should seek his reward in the pleasure of his work and in release from the burden of this thoughts; and, indifferent to aught else, care nothing for praise or censure, failure or success. Somerset Maugham in The Moon and Sixpence . Some writers are the authors of specific military orders whose clarity will determine the outcome of a battle.
Among the most controversial and unsuccessful was Lord Raglan 's order at the Charge of the Light Brigade , which being vague and misinterpreted, led to defeat with many casualties. Some writers use the writing task to develop their own skill in writing itself or in another area of knowledge or explore an idea while they are producing a piece of writing. Philologist J.
Tolkien , for example, created a new language for his fantasy books. For me the private act of poetry writing is songwriting, confessional, diary-keeping, speculation, problem-solving, storytelling, therapy, anger management, craftsmanship, relaxation, concentration and spiritual adventure all in one inexpensive package.
Stephen Fry , author, poet, playwright, screenwriter, journalist .
Some genres are a particularly appropriate choice for writers whose chief purpose is to entertain. Among them are limericks , many comics and thrillers.
Writers of children's literature seek to entertain children but are also usually mindful of the educative function of their work as well. I think that I shall never see a billboard lovely as a tree; Indeed, unless the billboards fall I'll never see a tree at all. Ogden Nash , humorous poet, reworking a poem by Joyce Kilmer for comic effect. Such writers have affected ideas, opinion or policy significantly. Even though he is in love with the same woman, Cyrano helps his inarticulate friend, Rageneau, to woo her by writing on his behalf To himself : I will write, fold it, give it her, and fly!
Throws down the pen : Coward! But strike me dead if I dare to speak to her, To Ragueneau : What time is it? But writing, 'tis easier done He takes up the pen : Go to, I will write it, that love-letter! I have writ it and rewrit it in my own mind so oft that it lies there ready for pen and ink; and if I lay but my soul by my letter-sheet, 'tis naught to do but to copy from it. He writes. Writers may write a particular piece for payment even if at other times, they write for another reason , such as when they are commissioned to create a new work, transcribe an old one, translate another writer's work, or write for someone who is illiterate or inarticulate.
In some cases, writing has been the only way an individual could earn an income. Frances Trollope is an example of women who wrote to save herself and her family from penury, at a time when there were very few socially acceptable employment opportunities for them. Her book about her experiences in America, called Domestic Manners of the Americans became a great success, "even though she was over fifty and had never written before in her life" after which "she continued to write hard, carrying this on almost entirely before breakfast".
I write for two reasons; partly to make money and partly to win the respect of people whom I respect. Forster , novelist, essayist, librettist . Aristotle , who was tutor to Alexander the Great , wrote to support his teaching.
He wrote two treatises for the young prince: "On Monarchy", and "On Colonies"  and his dialogues also appear to have been written either "as lecture notes or discussion papers for use in his philosophy school at the Athens Lyceum between and BC. Writers of textbooks also use writing to teach and there are numerous instructional guides to writing itself.
For example, many people will find it necessary to make a speech "in the service of your company, church, civic club, political party, or other organization" and so, instructional writers have produced texts and guides for speechmaking. Many writers use their skill to tell the story of their people, community or cultural tradition, especially one with a personal significance. Writers use prose, poetry, and letters as part of courtship rituals.
Writers sometimes use a pseudonym, otherwise known as a pen name or "nom de plume". The reasons they do this include to separate their writing from other work or other types of writing for which they are known; to enhance the possibility of publication by reducing prejudice such as against women writers or writers of a particular ethnicity ; to reduce personal risk such as political risks from individuals, groups or states that disagree with them ; or to make their name better suit another language.
Apart from the large numbers of works attributable only to "Anonymous", there are a large number of writers who were once known and are now unknown. Efforts are made to find and re-publish these writers' works. One example is the publication of books like Japan As Seen and Described by Famous Writers a reproduction of a pre publication by "Anonymous".
Some fictional writers are very well known because of the strength of their characterization by the real writer or the significance of their role as writer in the plot of a work. Casaubon's efforts to complete an authoritative study affect the decisions taken by the protagonists in Eliot's novel and drive significant parts of the plot. In Gissing's work, Reardon's efforts to produce high quality writing put him in conflict with another character, who takes a more commercial approach.
Robinson Crusoe is a fictional writer who was originally credited by the real writer Daniel Defoe as being the author of the confessional letters in the work of the same name. Bridget Jones is a comparable fictional diarist created by writer Helen Fielding.