Holt, Greenhill, Commander of the German Forces in Italy. Fedorowicz, Pictorial cover. In shrink wrap.
New copy. Concord, Pub. Color illustrations.. Anchor, Later ed. What makes Biblio different?
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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Martin Blumenson, a graduate of Bucknell University, Salerno to Cassino (US Army Green Book) - Kindle edition by Martin Blumenson. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or. (Includes maps) The focus of the American and British war effort in was on the Start reading Salerno to Cassino (US Army Green Book) on your Kindle in.
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Dissertation Monte Cassino Final 1. To what extent did Allied Intelligence influence the decision to bomb the Benedictine Abbey at Montecassino on 15 February ? For, as the valley from its sleep awoke, I saw the iron horses of the steam Toss to the morning air their plumes of smoke, And woke, as one awaketh from a dream. His aircraft released lb bombs at hrs. Only 89 Medium bombers from reached the target. According to Hartcup, 23 returned to base without expending ordnance. Their target was the mother-house of Western Monasticism, the famous Abbazia di Montecassino.
In early , the German Tenth Army had prepared this place, now called Cassino, to make its stand. Like a sentinel perched in its lofty eyrie, the building had a 4 96th Bombardment Squadron was based at Amendola Airfield, part of the Foggia airfield complex. It was also widely referred to at the time by Allied reporting as the Monastery, but will only be referred to as such in direct quotations.
This dissertation will use Monte Cassino to refer to the hill upon which the Abbey stands unless otherwise quoted directly. Cassino refers to the town or area and will be suffixed accordingly.
A Short history of the Abbey may be found at Appendix B. The hill upon which the Abbey stood, along with the surrounding terrain, was an ideal defensive position, considered virtually impregnable by the Italian Staff College.
Sir Bernard Freyberg asserts that the building was defended and therefore a valid target whether occupied or not. According to the US Field Manual FM, The Rules of War, published in , a defended place was defined as: A place that is occupied by a combatant military force or through which such a force is passing. This Field Manual, although relevant to US forces only is relevant in this case as even through the destruction of the building was requested by a British unit and authorized by a British Supreme Commander, the force that carried out the attack was US and the commander of the Mediterranean Allied Strategic Air Force, Lieutenant General Ira Eaker, was also American.
It should be noted that neither of these manuals constitute International Humanitarian Law, but are guides to the rules laid down in the Hague Convention. The Hague, 18 October International Committee for the Red Cross. OpenDocument [5 May ].
Seller: shoeboxbargains Seller's other items. Tuker was a character as well but he took sick at Cassino , we never saw him again! Good description of his experiences in training and in combat in North Africa and Italy. This report was written at the request of Brigadier Latham of the Cabinet Office. There was considerable use of aerial photography to assist prisoners in providing information on enemy dispositions. The sparseness of the evidence and the unwillingness of General Wilson, the Supreme Allied Commander, to release this evidence to the Holy See are illuminating. Message 63 - 4th indians.
Article 27 of The Hague Conventions of was the latest in a number of international treaties dealing with the destruction of culturally important property. According to Bugnion, the principle of sparing religious or cultural property dates back to the Eighteenth Century, but was first laid down in treaty in the Brussels Declaration of The US, however, were also 8 9. No other reason would be permissible. It is insufficient to point to potential, location or its psychological effect.
The Rules of War, as they existed at the time, made no allowance for psychological or political necessity. All evidence clearly states that it was the target for attack. It is this that sets its destruction apart from other bombings of religious or cultural sites.
In bombing offensives by both sides, sites such as Cologne or Coventry Cathedrals were badly damaged by bombing. However, these were not the target of the attack, but were incidental to it. Such damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage anticipated from the attack. This is not the case at Monte Cassino. Secondly, there was no military advantage gained as the Germans quickly occupied the ruins, thereby improving their defence.
That they would do so was apparent beforehand. The Rules of War stated: The measure of permissible devastation is found in the strict necessities of war. As an end in itself, as a separate measure of war, devastation is not sanctioned by the law of war. There must be some reasonably close connection between the destruction of property and the overcoming of the enemy's army.