Human Rights and Minority Rights in the European Union (Routledge Research in EU Law)

The European Union’s Approach towards Ageism
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The development of the human rights presidency and its boards came with considerable financial and organizational support from the Council of Europe and other foreign donors, such as the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which invested in their own capacities in Turkey as a prospective member. Members of the boards received training; an international symposium was organized and a handbook developed for the board members. Linked to this, surely, traditional human rights associations have, by contrast, complained about the waning interest and financial support from European institutions for their activities.

Some EU representatives now seem to view human rights associations in Turkey more critically, faulting them for perceived structural problems and politicization. We cannot be sure about whether or not organizations are related to the PKK since we cannot check for each organization how they are being financed, therefore we base ourselves mostly upon the big international NGOs and their reports [in order to evaluate the reforms related to human rights in Turkey]. The diminished support for some of the human rights associations can be read from the financial support for human rights projects.

Another detrimental influence on the human rights cause seems to have been a perception of AKP legitimacy, noted as being the first majority government for a decade and democratic counterweight to the military and deep state.

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In addition, a more critical stance towards human rights associations is linked to the reduction in hostilities in the southeast and its accompanying reduction in human rights violations and the developing EU-Turkish relationship. During the meetings with EU-delegations I have noticed myself how uncomfortable they felt when we talked about the problems.

But that is a wrong attitude. It shows that Turkey is in a comfortable position in the negotiations, as it is able to stay in control Ayhan Bilgen, former President of Mazlum-Der, personal interview, 14 January İHD and Mazlum-Der would actively send representatives of their associations to participate in meetings and conferences within member states of the European Union, as well as in the European Parliament. Sometimes these visits were and are supported financially and organizationally by Kurdish diaspora organizations, who serve as brokers to establish and maintain contacts Casier The European Commission and Parliament also sent several delegations to Turkey, and in particular, to the southeastern provinces, to assess the human rights situation, where they made many visits to the local branches of İHD, TİHV and Mazlum-Der.

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Through these contacts these associations were able to engage in public criticism of the Turkish state and the Turkish government and call for the need to democratize the country. The İHOP organizations share the idea that the Turkish state and its political system need to democratize in order to be able to guarantee respect for human rights, and are thus politically engaged insofar as they address the root causes of violations, and not just its symptoms.

Given the accession negotiations, the Turkish government is highly motivated to uphold a positive image of its reforms and has, moreover, been pressured to engage more substantially with its civil society actors.

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Schiek and A. The added value of these changes is that they would not require any further Treaty reform to ensure better promotion and respect for human rights. Fisher, William F. International and European policy on work and retirement: Reinventing critical perspectives on active ageing and mature subjectivity. Not only do these exceptions complicate the negotiations of the draft directive, but they also enhance the view that old age disadvantages are unavoidable and therefore acceptable Calasanti et al. Looseleaf titles between 1 to 2 weeks.

The lower levels of the new institutional structure, the local and provincial boards, have been shown to consist primarily of organizations and associations that work for and within the confines of the Turkish state ideology and its practices that have been repudiated by the established human rights associations.

Thus, in spite of negotiations and the consequent capacity-building in Turkey for the protection of human rights, the last decade has seen the coming into existence of alternative institutions that threaten the existing ones and have partially silenced their voices.

Compared with the newly established human rights institutions, the traditional associations still possess expertise, inclusion in transnational advocacy networks, and are — though under pressure — consulted and to some extent supported by the same EU institutions that support official human rights institutionalization efforts.

Part of the space the established human rights associations have created since the s remains intact, albeit somewhat marginalized. Signaling the importance of a broad cooperation with civil society and pressing both the government and the civil society organizations to enter into dialogue, the European Commission, has — ironically perhaps — effectively created a structural opportunity for the human rights associations to criticize the government.

Insofar as they have refused to take part in the provincial and local boards and have been left off the Human Rights Advisory Board the associations have taken a position from which they attempt to affect the institutionalization process. Their refusal to be involved in the particular way the institutionalization is developing constitutes a strategy for denying the new institutions the legitimacy that they would gain by incorporating the established human rights associations.

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Since the start of the institutionalization process the composition of the boards has been changed — specifically, the heads of the police and the secret services have been excluded from the boards after criticisms from the human rights associations and the INGOs, and the government has not yet managed to establish the new Human Rights Council as it is against the will of the established human rights associations. The state-led human rights institutionalization, which the EU institutions reckoned would reinforce cooperation between state and societal organizations, might thus, on the contrary, turn out to contribute to their ongoing differences.

This is the case even though the process might, at the same time, increase the level of integration of different actors into a separate competing cluster of organizations. What should be clear, though, is that the current human rights institutionalization process has mutually transformative effects on both state and society. Adamson, Fiona B. New Approaches to Migration? Transnational communities and the transformation of home, Oxon, Routledge, pp.

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Kurdish Human Rights Project , London. Within several domestic human rights organizations there have been and still are divisions over the question of how to address human rights violations in relation to the conflict between the Turkish state and the PKK. Some 10, applications remain currently pending ECHR b: Then the Supreme Court of Appeals 8 th Penal Circuit overturned the acquittal decision regarding Contents - Previous document - Next document.

Outline I. The roots of the current institutionalization process. The particularities of the new institutional body. Shifting patterns of relations between the EU and human rights associations. Hobsbawm , E. Hoffman , J. Holm , U. Holt , J. Ivanov , M. Koskenniemi , M. Krasner , S.

Kymlicka , W. Larsen , H. Leben , C. Lenaerts , K. Locke , J. Horowitz J. Clay and D. Lundberg , E. MacClancy , J. Macdonald , R. Marcussen , M. Marx , K. Mazzini , G. Drummond , McCormick , J. McCrudden , C. Meador , J. Mendus , S. Merlingen , M. Miller , V.

Moore , B. Moravcsik , A. Mumford , L. Musolff , A. Newman , M. Nowak , M. Engel , Petzold , H. Renan , E. Snyder Paris : Calmann-Levy , Risse , T.

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Rosamond , B. Rosenberg , J. Rousseau , J. Ruggeri Laderchi , F. Stone and Weiler , J. Ryssdal , R. Samuel , R. Sartori , G. Shaw , J. Smith , A. Snyder , L. Spinelli , A. She represents minors in court as a child lawyer and as an ad hoc administrator on a regular basis.

She speaks Luxembourgish, English, French and German. On she obtained LL. Previously, Mr. He has served for several years as a pro bono legal advisor and consultant of the New Rights Department of the national trade union Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro Italian Labor General Confederation. Fabeni also has served as a consultant and legal expert for institutions, consultancy firms and NGOs throughout Europe, as well as for the World Health Organization. He is the author of several bills introduced to the Italian Parliament in the XIV, XV and XVI legislatures, namely on transgender rights, legal recognition of same sex and de facto couples, and anti-discrimination legislation. Fabeni holds a laurea in giurisprudenza equivalent to J. He is a qualified solicitor who has held academic posts in Preston, Leicester and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.